Geerts S, Raes D. Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas. Agric Water Manag. 2009;96:1275–84.
Intrigliolo D, Bonet L, Nortes P, Puerto H, Nicolas E, Bartual J. Pomegranate trees performance under sustained and regulated deficit irrigation. Irrig Sci. 2013;31:959–70.
Fereres E, Goldhamer DA, Parsons LR. Irrigation water management of horticultural crops. HortScience. 2003;38:1036–42.
Pérez-Pastor A, Domingo R, Torrecillas A, Ruiz-Sánchez MC. Response of apricot trees to deficit irrigation strategies. Irrig Sci. 2009;27:231–42.
Ruiz Sánchez MC, Domingo Miguel R, Castel Sánchez JR. Deficit irrigation in fruit trees and vines in Spain. Span J Agric Res. 2010;8(S2):S5–20.
Buendía B, Allende A, Nicolás E, Alarcón JJ, Gil MI. Effect of regulated deficit irrigation and crop load on the antioxidant compounds of peaches. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:3601–8.
Behboudian M, Marsal J, Girona J, Lopez G. Quality and yield responses of deciduous fruits to reduced irrigation. Hortic Rev. 2011;38:149–89.
Gutbrodt B, Dorn S, Mody K. Drought stress affects constitutive but not induced herbivore resistance in apple plants. Arthropod-Plant Interact. 2012;6:171–9.
Sun X, Yan H, Kang X, Ma F. Growth, gas exchange, and water-use efficiency response of two young apple cultivars to drought stress in two scion-one rootstock grafting system. Photosynthetica. 2013;51:404–10.
Mpelasoka B, Behboudian M, Green S. Water use, yield and fruit quality of lysimeter-grown apple trees: responses to deficit irrigation and to crop load. Irrig Sci. 2001;20:107–13.
Alikhani-Koupaei M, Fatahi R, Zamani Z, Salimi S. Effects of deficit irrigation on some physiological traits, production and fruit quality of ‘Mazafati’ date palm and the fruit wilting and dropping disorder. Agric Water Manag. 2018;209:219–27.
Behboudian M, Mills T. Deficit irrigation in deciduous orchards. Hortic Rev. 1997;21:105–31.
Girona J, del Campo J, Bonastre N, Paris C, Mata M, Arbones A, Marsal J: Evaluation of different irrigation strategies on apple (Malus domestica). Physiological and productive results. In Proc VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops, Viña del Mar, Chile; 2009, 54.
Girona J, Marsal J, Arbones A, Dejong T. A comparison of the combined effect of water stress and crop load on fruit growth during different phenological stages in young peach trees. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol. 2004;79:308–15.
Smart R, Robinson J, Due G, Brien C. Canopy microclimate modification for the cultivar Shiraz. I. Definition of canopy microclimate. Vitis. 1985;24:119–28.
Williams L, Matthews M. Grapevine. In: Stewart BA, Nielsen DR, editors. Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. Madison: ASA; 1990. p. 1019–55.
Romero P, Muñoz RG, Fernández-Fernández J, del Amor FM, Martínez-Cutillas A, García-García J. Improvement of yield and grape and wine composition in field-grown Monastrell grapevines by partial root zone irrigation, in comparison with regulated deficit irrigation. Agric Water Manag. 2015;149:55–73.
Ahmed CB, Rouina BB, Sensoy S, Boukhris M, Abdallah FB. Changes in gas exchange, proline accumulation and antioxidative enzyme activities in three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes. Environ Exp Bot. 2009;67:345–52.
Glenn DM, Puterka GJ. Particle films: a new technology for agriculture. Horticultural Reviews. 2005;31:1–44.
Rosati A, Metcalf S, Buchner R, Fulton A, Lampinen B. Physiological effects of kaolin applications in well irrigated and water stressed walnut and almond trees. Ann Bot. 2006;98:267–75.
Dinis L-T, Ferreira H, Pinto G, Bernardo S, Correia C, Moutinho-Pereira J. Kaolin-based foliar reflective film protects photosystem II structure and function in grapevine leaves exposed to heat and high solar radiation. Photosynthetica. 2016;54:47–55.
Faghih S, Zamani Z, Fatahi R, Liaghat A. Effects of deficit irrigation and kaolin application on vegetative growth and fruit traits of two early ripening apple cultivars. Biol Res. 2019;52:1–12.
Glenn DM, Drake S, Abbott JA, Puterka GJ, Gundrum P. Season and cultivar influence the fruit quality response of apple cultivars to particle film treatments. Hort Technology. 2005;15:249–53.
Saure MC. External control of anthocyanin formation in apple. Sci Hortic. 1990;42:181–218.
Saour G, Makee H. Effects of kaolin particle film on olive fruit yield, oil content and quality. Adv Hortic Sci. 2003;17:204–6.
Glenn DM, Prado E, Erez A, McFerson J, Puterka GJ. A reflective, processed-kaolin particle film affects fruit temperature, radiation reflection and solar injury in apple. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 2002;127:188–93.
Wand SJ, Theron KI, Ackerman J, Marais SJ. Harvest and post-harvest apple fruit quality following applications of kaolin particle film in South African orchards. Sci Hortic. 2006;107:271–6.
Jifon JL, Syvertsen JP. Kaolin particle film applications can increase photosynthesis and water use efficiency of ‘Ruby Red’ grapefruit leaves. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 2003;128:107–12.
Melgarejo P, Martınez J, Hernández F, Martınez-Font R, Barrows P, Erez A. Kaolin treatment to reduce pomegranate sunburn. Sci Hortic. 2004;100:349–53.
Gharaghani A, Javarzari AM, Vahdati K. Kaolin particle film alleviates adverse effects of light and heat stresses and improves nut and kernel quality in Persian walnut. Sci Hortic. 2018;239:35–40.
Sharma R, Datta S, Varghese E. Kaolin-based particle film sprays reduce the incidence of pests, diseases and storage disorders and improve postharvest quality of ‘Delicious’ apples. Crop Prot. 2019;127:104950.
Shahrokhnia M, Sepaskhah A. Safflower model for simulation of growth and yield under various irrigation strategies, planting methods and nitrogen fertilization. Int J Plant Prod. 2017;11:167–92.
Popescu SC, Wynne RH, Nelson RF. Measuring individual tree crown diameter with lidar and assessing its influence on estimating forest volume and biomass. Can J Remote Sens. 2003;29:564–77.
Alikhani-Koupaei M, Fatahi R, Zamani Z, Salimi S. 5-Aminolevulinic acid moderates environmental stress-induced bunch wilting and stress markers in date palm. Acta Physiol Plant. 2018;40:159.
Laribi A, Palou L, Intrigliolo D, Nortes P, Rojas-Argudo C, Taberner V, Bartual J, Pérez-Gago M. Effect of sustained and regulated deficit irrigation on fruit quality of pomegranate cv. Mollar de Elche at harvest and during cold storage. Agric Water Manag. 2013;125:61–70.
Ćosić M, Djurović N, Todorović M, Maletić R, Zečević B, Stričević R. Effect of irrigation regime and application of kaolin on yield, quality and water use efficiency of sweet pepper. Agric Water Manag. 2015;159:139–47.
Turner NC. Techniques and experimental approaches for the measurement of plant water status. Plant Soil. 1981;58:339–66.
Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare I. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil. 1973;39:205–7.
Grieve C, Grattan S. Rapid assay for determination of water soluble quaternary ammonium compounds. Plant Soil. 1983;70:303–7.
Stewart RR, Bewley JD. Lipid peroxidation associated with accelerated aging of soybean axes. Plant Physiol. 1980;65:245–8.
Sergiev I, Alexieva V, Karanov E. Effect of spermine, atrazine and combination between them on some endogenous protective systems and stress markers in plants. Comptes Rendus Academie Bulgare Des Sciences. 1997;51:121–4.
Dodd IC. Root-to-shoot signalling: assessing the roles of ‘up’ in the up and down world of long-distance signalling in planta. Plant Soil. 2005;274:251–70.
Ballester C, Castel J, Intrigliolo D, Castel J. Response of ‘Clementina de Nules’ citrus trees to summer deficit irrigation. Yield components and fruit composition. Agric Water Manag. 2011;98:1027–32.
Intrigliolo D, Castel J. Response of plum trees to deficit irrigation under two crop levels: tree growth, yield and fruit quality. Irrig Sci. 2010;28:525–34.
Pérez-Pastor A, Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Domingo R. Effects of timing and intensity of deficit irrigation on vegetative and fruit growth of apricot trees. Agric Water Manag. 2014;134:110–8.
Ou C, Du X, Shellie K, Ross C, Qian MC. Volatile compounds and sensory attributes of wine from cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grown under differential levels of water deficit with or without a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:12890–8.
Segura-Monroy S, Uribe-Vallejo A, Ramirez-Godoy A, Restrepo-Diaz H. Effect of kaolin application on growth, water use efficiency, and leaf epidermis characteristics of Physallis peruviana seedlings under two irrigation regimes. J Agric Sci Technol. 2015;17:1585–96.
Glenn D. Effect of highly processed calcined kaolin residues on apple productivity and quality. Sci Hortic. 2016;201:101–8.
Ebel RC, Proebsting EL, Patterson ME. Regulated deficit irrigation may alter apple maturity, quality, and storage life. HortScience. 1993;28:141–3.
Ebel RC, Proebsting EL, Evans RG. Apple tree and fruit responses to early termination of irrigation in a semi-arid environment. HortScience. 2001;36:1197–201.
Bolat I, Dikilitas M, Ercisli S, Ikinci A, Tonkaz T. The effect of water stress on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success on apple and quince rootstocks. Sci World J. 2014;14:1–8.
Rapoport HF, Costagli G, Gucci R. The effect of water deficit during early fruit development on olive fruit morphogenesis. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 2004;129:121–7.
García-Tejero I, Romero-Vicente R, Jiménez-Bocanegra J, Martínez-García G, Durán-Zuazo V, Muriel-Fernández J. Response of citrus trees to deficit irrigation during different phenological periods in relation to yield, fruit quality, and water productivity. Agric Water Manag. 2010;97:689–99.
Shao H-B, Chu L-Y, Jaleel CA, Zhao C-X. Water deficit stress induced anatomical changes in higher plants. CR Biol. 2008;331:215–25.
Glenn DM. Particle film mechanisms of action that reduce the effect of environmental stress in ‘Empire’ apple. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 2009;134:314–21.
Samperio A, Prieto MH, Blanco-Cipollone F, Vivas A, Moñino MJ. Effects of post-harvest deficit irrigation in ‘Red Beaut’Japanese plum: tree water status, vegetative growth, fruit yield, quality and economic return. Agric Water Manag. 2015;150:92–102.
Ebel RC, Proebsting EL, Evans RG. Deficit irrigation to control vegetative growth in apple and monitoring fruit growth to schedule irrigation. HortScience. 1995;30:1229–32.
Mpelasoka B, Behboudian M, Mills T. Effects of deficit irrigation on fruit maturity and quality of ‘Braeburn’ apple. Sci Hortic. 2001;90:279–90.
Gindaba J, Wand SJ. Comparative effects of evaporative cooling, kaolin particle film, and shade net on sunburn and fruit quality in apples. HortScience. 2005;40:592–6.
Daane K, Williams L. Manipulating vineyard irrigation amounts to reduce insect pest damage. Ecol Appl. 2003;13:1650–66.
Glenn D, Puterka G, Vanderzwet T, Byers R, Feldhake C. Hydrophobic particle films: a new paradigm for suppression of arthropod pests and plant diseases. J Econ Entomol. 1999;92:759–71.
Puterka GJ, Glenn DM, Pluta RC. Action of particle films on the biology and behavior of pear psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae). J Econ Entomol. 2005;98:2079–88.
Sheikhali T, Farazmand H, Vafaei S. The preliminary study of kaolin on damage reduction of pomegranate fruit moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lep., Pyralidae) in Garmsar region. J Entomol Res. 2011;3(2):163–71.
Tavarini S, Gil M, Tomas-Barberan F, Buendia B, Remorini D, Massai R, Degl’Innocenti E, Guidi L. Effects of water stress and rootstocks on fruit phenolic composition and physical/chemical quality in Suncrest peach. Ann Appl Biol. 2011;158:226–33.
Miao L, Zhang Y, Yang X, Xiao J, Zhang H, Zhang Z, Wang Y, Jiang GJF. Colored light-quality selective plastic films affect anthocyanin content, enzyme activities, and the expression of flavonoid genes in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit. Food Chem. 2016;207:93–100.
Mellisho C, Egea I, Galindo A, Rodríguez P, Rodríguez J, Conejero W, Romojaro F, Torrecillas A. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit response to different deficit irrigation conditions. Agric Water Manag. 2012;114:30–6.
Papenfuss KA, Black BL. Regulated deficit irrigation of ‘Montmorency’ tart cherry. HortScience. 2010;45:1437–40.
Al-Rousan WM, Ajo RY, Angor MM, Osaili T, Bani-Hani NM. Impact of different irrigation levels and harvesting periods on the quantity and quality of Navel oranges (Citrus sinensis) and fruit juice. J Food Agric Environ. 2012;10:115–9.
Glenn DM, Erez A, Puterka GJ, Gundrum P. Particle films affect carbon assimilation and yield in ‘Empire’ apple. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 2003;128:356–62.
Aly M, El-Megeed NA, Awad RM. Reflective particle films affected on, sunburn, yield, mineral composition and fruit maturity of ‘Anna’ apple (Malus domestica) trees. Res J Agric Biol Sci. 2010;6:84–92.
Zabihi H, Azarpajouh E. Grape response to different soil moisture regimes. Journal of Soil and Water Science. 2004;18(10):34–9.
Bordonaba JG, Terry LA. Manipulating the taste-related composition of strawberry fruits (Fragaria × ananassa) from different cultivars using deficit irrigation. Food Chem. 2010;122:1020–6.
Schrader LE, Zhang J, Sun J, Xu J, Elfving DC, Kahn C. Postharvest changes in internal fruit quality in apples with sunburn browning. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 2009;134:148–55.
Chartzoulakis K, Patakas A, Bosabalidis A. Changes in water relations, photosynthesis and leaf anatomy induced by intermittent drought in two olive cultivars. Environ Exp Bot. 1999;42:113–20.
Lawlor DW, Cornic G. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant Cell Environ. 2002;25:275–94.
Pirasteh-Anosheh H, Saed-Moucheshi A, Pakniyat H, Pessarakli M: Stomatal responses to drought stress. Water Stress and Crop Plants. 2016:24–40
Šircelj H, Tausz M, Grill D, Batič F. Detecting different levels of drought stress in apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) with selected biochemical and physiological parameters. Sci Hortic. 2007;113:362–9.
Wang S, Liang D, Li C, Hao Y, Ma F, Shu H. Influence of drought stress on the cellular ultrastructure and antioxidant system in leaves of drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive apple rootstocks. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;51:81–9.
Bernardo S, Dinis L-T, Luzio A, Pinto G, Meijón M, Valledor L, Conde A, Gerós H, Correia C, Moutinho-Pereira J. Kaolin particle film application lowers oxidative damage and DNA methylation on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Environ Exp Bot. 2017;139:39–47.
Ashraf M, Foolad M. Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot. 2007;59:206–16.
Teixidó N, Cañamás T, Usall J, Torres R, Magan N, Viñas I. Accumulation of the compatible solutes, glycine–betaine and ectoine, in osmotic stress adaptation and heat shock cross-protection in the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2005;41:248–52.
Xiloyannis C, Dichio B, Nuzzo V, Celano G. Defence strategies of olive against water stress. Acta Hort. 1999;474:423–6.
Denaxa N-K, Roussos PA, Damvakaris T, Stournaras V. Comparative effects of exogenous glycine betaine, kaolin clay particles and Ambiol on photosynthesis, leaf sclerophylly indexes and heat load of olive cv. Chondrolia Chalkidikis under drought. Sci Hortic. 2012;137:87–94.
Shukla N, Awasthi R, Rawat L, Kumar J. Biochemical and physiological responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by Trichoderma harzianum under drought stress. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;54:78–88.
Abdallah MMS, El-Bassiouny HMS, AbouSeeda MA. Potential role of kaolin or potassium sulfate as anti-transpirant on improving physiological, biochemical aspects and yield of wheat plants under different watering regimes. Bull Natl Res Cent. 2019;43:134.