The TLR7 agonist Imiquimod promote the immunogenicity of msenchymal stem cells
© Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
Received: 20 October 2014
Accepted: 7 January 2015
Published: 17 January 2015
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered the best candidate in stem cells therapy due to their multipotent differentiation ability, low expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, CD34 and HLA-II) and immunosuppression effects on in vivo immune responses. MSCs were now widely used in clinical trials but received no encourage results. The major problem was the fate of engrafted MSCs in vivo could not be defined. Some studies indicated that MSCs could induce immune response and result in the damage and rejection of MSCs. As toll like receptors (TLRs) are important in inducing of immune responses, in this study we study the role of TLR7 in mediating the immune status of MSCs isolated from umbilical cord.
Our results indicated that TLR7 agonist Imiquimod could increase the proliferation of PBMC isolated from healthy human volunteers and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in supernatant from PBMC-UCMSCs co-culture system. Flow cytometry and quantitative PCR also confirmed the regulated expression of surface co-stimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, TGF-β and TNF-α). And the down-regulation expression of stem cell markers also confirmed the loss of stemness of UCMSCs. We also found that the osteo-differentiation ability of UCMSCs was enhanced in the presence of Imiquimod.
To our knowledge, this is the first report that activation of TLR7 pathway increases the immunogenicity of UCMSCs. Extensive researches have now been conducted to study whether the change of immune status will be help in tumor rejection based on the tumor-tropism of MSCs.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated significant potential for clinical use. The advantages of MSCs in clinical use were due to their easily isolation, low immunogenicity, immunosuppression effects, lack of ethical controversy and potential to differentiate into tissue-specific cell types . MSCs can be successfully isolated from adipose tissue, liver, tendons, synovial membrane, amniotic fluid, placenta, umbilical cord and teeth . MSCs can differentiate easily into mesodermal phenotypes of adipocyte, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and some extra-mesodermal cell types including neural, pancreatic and hepatocytic phenotypes . The second advantage of MSCs in cell therapy is the low expression of co-stimulatory factors including CD80, CD86, HLA-II and CD34, which enables MSCs fails to induce immune responses . The third feature of MSCs is immunosuppression effects in that MSCs can inhibit the function of T cells, B cells, DC and NK cells . All these advantages ensure the benefit of MSCs in clinical trials. MSCs have been used widely in regenerating damaged tissue and treat inflammation result from cardiovascular disease , pancreatic regeneration , neurological disorders , graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)  and liver fibrosis .
However, some recent late stage clinical trials have failed to meet the primary aims, and the fate of MSC following systemic infusion as well as the mechanism they impact on host biological functions are largely unknown . Several reports indicated that engrafted MSCs could induce immune responses in vivo and cause the rejection or damage of MSCs, such as induction of memory T cell response , increased immunogenicity of differentiated MSCs , enhanced NK cell response  and complement response . These evidences indicated that MSCs could not hold immune privilege permanently in vivo and might induce immune response under specific conditions, but large of these mechanisms remained uncovered.
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) which played important roles in mediating immune responses, especially recognize invaded pathogens by binding conserved components of microbes . There are 11 family members of TLR family which recognize different pathogens . Previous researches showed that TLRs were important in mediating MSCs functions. The expression of TLR1, 2, 5, 9 and 10 were significantly increased exposure to hypoxic conditions . Activation of TLR4 pathway protects MSCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. TLR3 agonist polyI:C increased the oseteo-differentiation  while TLR9 ligand CpG impaired it . However, all these results of TLRs functions in MSC were from adipogenic tissues and bone marrow, no evidences were available about the role of TLRs in biological functions of MSCs isolated from umbilical cord. Although MSCs shared similarities in a lot of biological functions such as metabolic processes, biological regulation, cell communication and multicellular processes either from adipose tissues, bone marrows or from umbilical cord, there were still obvious differences between MSCs from bone marrow and umbilical cord . Several embryonic stem cells (ECS) markers were present in UCMSCs, not in BMMSCs. UCMSCs expressed SSEA-1, SSEA-3, Oct-4, TRA-1-60 and DNMT3B, but showed low expression levels of genes associated with teratomas formation . The UCMSCs were also found expressed higher levels of pluripotent stem cell genes (Oct-3/4, Nanog, Sox2, Sox17, Otx2 et al.) than MSCs isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissues and dental pulp .
As previous study indicated the activation of TLR7 increased the leukemia cells and led to the immune rejection . In this study, we chose TLR7 to study whether the activation of TLR7 pathway by specific agonist Imiquimod. The aim of research is to study the role of TLR7 in regulating the immune status of UCMSCs.
Activation of TLR7 pathway of UCMSC by Imiquimod dramatically increased the proliferation of PBMC
CFSE-labeled leukocytes proliferation was widely used to detect the increased immune responses in co-culture system. In our study, we isolated PBMC from health human volunteers and co-cultured with UCMSCs in the presence of Imiquimod, the proliferation of PBMC was 53.3% 72-hour post stimulation, while the control groups showed only 10.2% (PBMC + MSC) and 8.5% (PBMC + Imiqouid), respectively (Figure 1A). The result strongly suggested the increased immune response upon TLR7 activation.
Imiquimod greatly promoted the expression of co-stimulatory molecules of UCMSCs
Pro-inflammatory cytokines were induced while the stem cell markers were inhibited in the presence of TLR7 agonist Imiquimod
The PBMC proliferation and the increased co-stimulatory molecules upon Imiquimod treatment led us to hypothesize that activation of TLR7 pathway by Imiquimod could induce the pro-inflammatory molecules which played important roles in shaping of immune status of UCMSCs. UCMSCs were treated with Imiquimod and RNA was extracted 4-hour, 12-hour, 24-hour, 72-hour and 120-hour post treatment. Quantitative PCR was conducted to measure the expression variation of important molecules in mediating the immunogenicity of cells. We found the dramatically induction of several molecules including NF-κB, TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 (all p < 0.001), which were know immune response-related molecules in increasing the immune responses, while in INF-β and IL-8 detection the results indicated that expressions were rapidly increased upon Imiquimod stimulation but decreased at latter time points. In chemokine detection, CXCL6 and CCL26 showed increased expression while CCL7 and CCL15 were inhibited in the presence of Imiquimod, this contradictory results indicated the complex effects of TLR7 pathway on biological functions (Figure 3).
Osteoblasts differentiation ability of UCMSCs was enhanced by Imiquimod
The characteristics of MSCs including multi-potent differentiation ability, lack of expression of co-stimulatory factors and immunosuppressive effect enabled MSCs the best candidate in cell-based therapy . However, previous researches indicated the induced immunogenic response in vivo against engrafted MSCs under specific conditions mediated by various molecules .
Toll like receptors (TLRs) played important roles in promoting immune responses. Among 11 members of TLRs, TLR7 located on the surface of endosome and could be recognized and activated by ssRNA of RNA viruses . In leukemia research, activation of TLR7 by R848 could increase the immunogenicity of acute myeloid leukemia cells and result in the rejection of these cells by host immune response . Previous research indicated that activation of TLRs did not change the immune status of MSCs, however, our results showed that TLR7 agonist Imiquimod promoted the immunogenicity of UCMSCs by increasing the proliferation of human PBMC in PBMC-UCMSC co-culture system. In support of this conclusion, the Imiquimod stimulation in UCMSCs increased the immune attack by human immune cells. Other evidences came from the assay of surface co-stimulatory molecules and gene expression detection, which indicated the up-regulated expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-E on surface of UCMSCs, as well as the induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (NF-κB, TGF-β, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α). The stem cell markers (Lin28, Otx2, Sox2 and Sox17) were also found inhibited upon Imiquimod stimulation, which confirmed the loss of stemness of UCMSCs upon TLR7 activation.
Huang et al. suggested that MSCs were immune privileged in the allogeneic heart in undifferentiated status and the differentiation of MSCs greatly increased the immune rejection by the host . Based on this observation, we hypothesized that increased immunogenicity mediated by TLR7 pathway was due to the increased differentiation ability. To demonstrate our hypothesis, we put differentiation medium on UCMSCs to induce the adipocyte, osteoblast and chondrocyte from UCMSCs. The results showed that the osteo-differentiation of UCMSCs was dramatically increased by the Imiquimod stimulation. Therefore, these data confirmed our hypothesis that the increased immunogenicity of UCMSCs by TLR7 stemmed from the enhanced differentiation ability.
It is well known that MSCs can preferentially mobilize to the sites of inflammation, especially migrate to tumor tissues . The mechanisms of how chemokines and cytokines are involved in MSC biological functions still remains uncovered, and awaits much more research to clarity. Previous study indicated that CCL5 and SDF-1 secreted by MSCs was responsible for enhancing the metastatic potential of several breast cancer cells . And monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion by breast cancer cells was responsible for the homing of MSCs to tumors, both locally and systemically. Irradiation of tumors released lots of inflammatory mediators, which played important roles to increase the engraftment of MSCs to the tumor .
The activation of TLR7 pathway led to the switch of immune status of UCMSCs might play an important role in cell-based therapy, as previous report suggested that MSCs could migrate to the tumor and maintain the low immune status of tumor environment, finally protect tumor from immune responses and promote the tumor progression. So the enhanced immunogenicity of UCMSCs might cause the change of immune status in UCMSCs-tumor environment, which could be used in tumor therapy.
Isolation, culture and stimulation of UCMSCs
The method to isolate MSCs from umibilical cord was based on published literature . The umbilical cord was diced into pieces after disinfection in 75% ethanol for 10–20 min. The small pieces of mesenchymal tissues were put into 25 mm2 plates. The culture medium was added when tissues sticked tightly to the bottom of plates. The dissociated MSCs were collected about 5–8 days after the mesenchymal tissues were removed. The UCMSCs were then maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), 2 mM glutamine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin and then stored in liquid for future used.
TLR7 agonist Imiquimod was purchased from IMGENEX (IMG-2207) and dissolved in DMSO at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml. UCMSCs were seeded into 6-well plate at a concentration of 1.5 × 105 in 2 ml medium and Imiquimod was added into the medium at final concentration of 10 μg/ml.
Quantitative reverse transcript PCR
Primer used for real-time PCR
Leukocyte proliferation and leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity detection
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from healthy volunteers by density centrifugation gradient and labeled by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) at final concentration of 10 μM. Pre-cold complete DMEM was added 10 minutes to stop the reaction. CFSE-Labeled PBMCs were then washed three times by cold PBS (1200 g, 5-min). PBMCs were co-cultured with UCMSCs and collected for FACS detection 72-hours in the presence of Imiquimod.
Supernatants from PBMC-UCMSCs co-culture system were collected 24, 48 and 72-hour post stimulation and assessed by the cytotoxicity detection kit. Releasing of LDH from damaged cells was assayed according to the manual. The lysis percent was calculated by the following formula: 100 × (E-M)/(T-M), where E is experimental release, M is spontaneous release in the presence of media alone, and T is maximum release in the presence of 5% Triton X-100.
Surface molecules detection by flow cytometry
Monoclonal antibodies for FACS analysis
UCMSCs were seeded into 6-well plate with 1.5 × 105 per well. Conditioned medium of chondrocyte (GIBCO, A10071-01), osteocyte (GIBCO, A10072-01) and adipocyte (GIBCO, A10070-01) were added in each well, with 10 μg/ml Imiquimod. And oil-red was used for staining of adipocyte, alizarin red for osteocyte and safranine for chondrocyte 7-day, 14-day and 21-day.
All data analysis and figures completion was the same with our previous study .
Supported by National Natural Scientific Foundations of China (81372504).
- Phinney DG, Prockop DJ: Concise review: mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells: the state of transdifferentiation and modes of tissue repair – current views. Stem Cells 2007, 25:2896–902. 10.1634/stemcells.2007-0637View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bianco P, Robey PG, Simmons PJ: Mesenchymal stem cells: revisiting history, concepts, and assays. Cell Stem Cell 2008, 2:313–9. 10.1016/j.stem.2008.03.002View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee OK, Kuo TK, Chen WM, Lee KD, Hsieh SL, Chen TH, et al.: Isolation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord blood. Blood 2004, 103:1669–75. 10.1182/blood-2003-05-1670View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dominici M, Le Blanc K, Muller I, Slaper-Cortenbach I, Marini FC, Krause DS, et al.: Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. The international society for cellular therapy postion statement. Cytotherapy 2006, 8:315–7. 10.1080/14653240600855905View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shi M, Liu ZW, Wang FS: Immunomodulatory properties and therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cells. Clin Exp Immunol 2011, 164:1–8.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Psaltis PJ, Zannettino AC, Worthley SG: Concise review: mesenchymal stromal cells: potential for cardiovascular repair. Stem Cell 2008, 26:2201–10. 10.1634/stemcells.2008-0428View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ezquer FE, Ezquer ME, Parrau DB, Carpio D, Yanez AJ, Conget PA: Systemic administration of multippotent mesenchymal stromal cells reverts hyperglycemia and prevents nephropathy in type I diabetic mice. e 2008, 14:631–40.Google Scholar
- Himes BT, Neuhuber B, Coleman C, Kushner R, Swanger SA, Kopen GC, et al.: Recovery of function following grating of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells into the injured spinal cord. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2006, 20:278–96. 10.1177/1545968306286976View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- LeBlanc K, Rasmusson I, Sundber B, Gotherstrom C, Hassan M, Uzunel M, et al.: Treatment of severe acute graft-versus host disease with third party haploidentical mesenchymal stem cells. Lancet 2004, 363:1439–41. 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16104-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Bian C, Liao L, Zhu Y, Li J, Zeng L, et al.: Inhibition of hepatic stellate cells proliferation by mesenchymal stem cells and the possible mechanism. Hepatol Res 2009, 39:1219–28. 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2009.00564.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ankrum J, Karp JM: Mesenchymal stem cell therapy: two steps forward, one step back. Tends Mol Med 2010,2010(16):203–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nauta AJ, Westerhuis G, Kruisselbrink AB, Lurvink EG, Willemeze R, Fibbe WE: Donor-derived mesenchymal stem cells are immunogenic in an allogeneic host and stimulate donor graft rejection in a nonmyeloablative setting. Blood 2006, 108:2114–20. 10.1182/blood-2005-11-011650View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang XP, Sun Z, Miyagi Y, McDonald KH, Zhang L, Weisel RD, et al.: Differentiation of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells induces immunogenicity and limits their long-term benefits for myocardial repair. Circulation 2010, 122:2419–29. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.955971View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spaggiari GM: Mesenchymal stem cell-natural killer cell interactions: evidence that activated NK cells are capable of killing MSCs, whereas MSCs can inhibit IL-2-induced NK-cell proliferation. Blood 2006, 107:1484–90. 10.1182/blood-2005-07-2775View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Lin F: Mesenchymal stem cells are injured by complement after their contact with serum. Blood 2012, 120:3436–43. 10.1182/blood-2012-03-420612View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blasius AL, Beutler B: Intracellular toll-like receptors. Immunity 2010, 32:305–15. 10.1016/j.immuni.2010.03.012View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O: Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 2006, 124:783–801. 10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.015View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cho HH, Bae YC, Jung JS: Role of toll-like receptors on human adipose-derived stromal cells. Stem Cell 2006, 24:2744–52. 10.1634/stemcells.2006-0189View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen GY, Shiah HC, Su HJ: Baculovirs transduction of mesenchymal stem cells triggers the toll-like receptors 3 pathway. J Virol 2009, 83:10548–56. 10.1128/JVI.01250-09View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- DelaRosa O, Lombardo E: Modulation of adult mesenchymal stem cells activity by toll-like receptors: implications on therapeutic potential. Mediator Inflamm 2010. Article ID 865601, 9 pagesGoogle Scholar
- Miranda HC, Herai RH, Thome CH, Gomes GG, Panepucci RA, Orellana MD, et al.: A quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic comparison of human mesenchymal stem cell from bone marrow and umbilical cord vein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012, 12:2607–17.Google Scholar
- Huang YC, Paroline O, LaRocca G, Deng L: Umbilical cord versus bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Stem Cells Dev 2012, 21:2900–3. 10.1089/scd.2012.0216View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stanko P, Kaiserova K, Altanerova V: Comparison of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, bone marrow, adipose tissues and umbilical cord tissue by gene expression. Biomad Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2013., 157: doi:10.5507Google Scholar
- Schon MP, Schon M: TLR7 and TLR8 as targets in cancer therapy. Oncogene 2008, 27:190–9. 10.1038/sj.onc.1210913View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Torsvik A, Bjerkviq R: Mesenchymal stem cell signaling in cancer progression. Cancer Treat Rev 2013, 39:180–8. 10.1016/j.ctrv.2012.03.005View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mishra PJ, Humeniuk R, Medina DJ: Carcinoma-associated fibroblast-like differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Cancer Res 2008, 68:4331–9. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0943View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Quante M, Tu SP, Tomita H, Gonda T, Wang SS, Takashi S, et al.: Bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts contribute to the mesenchymal stem cell niche and promote tumor growth. Cancer Cell 2011, 19:257–72. 10.1016/j.ccr.2011.01.020View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fu YS, Cheng YC, Lin MY: Conversion of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in Wharton’s jelly to dopaminergic neurons in vitro: potential therapeutic application for parkinsonism. Stem Cells 2006, 24:115–24. 10.1634/stemcells.2005-0053View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang L, Liu D, Pu D, Wang YW, Li L, He YQ, et al.: The role of toll like receptor 3 and 4 in regulating the function of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from umbilical cord. Int J Mol Med Accepted for publicationGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.