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Table 4 BR response to various kinds of heavy metal stresses

From: The physiological and molecular mechanism of brassinosteroid in response to stress: a review

Stress Crops Year Remarks References
Aluminum Mung bean 2008 EBR significantly increased plant growth, chlorophyll under Al stress condition [85]
Iron deficiency Cucumber 2012 EBR regulate cucumber growth, stimulate ferric reductase activity (FRO), FRO1 and IRT1 (Fe transporters) genes expression and reduce Fe translocation from roots to shoots, reduce Fe deficiency effect [116]
Heavy metal Chlorella vulgaris 2000 EBR significantly overcome the inhibitory effect of heavy metals and significantly regulate plant growth [87]
Heavy metal Chlorella vulgaris 2010 EBR significantly reduce heavy metal stress by activation antioxidant enzymes activities [80]
Cadmium H. tuberosus 2012 EBR restore photosynthetic capacity and reduce Cd effect [81]
Cadmium Winter rape 2005 EBR enhanced antioxidant enzymes capacity to reduce Cd effect and significantly improve photosynthesis efficiency in rape [117]
Copper Brassica juncea. L 2007 Pre-sowing treatment of EBR enhance seedling by activating antioxidant enzymes capacity, reduce metal uptake, increase protein biosynthesis [118]
Chromium Chickpea 2008 EBR significantly alleviate chromium effect, increase chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes capacity and ultimately increase tobacco seedling growth [89]
Copper Radish 2010 EBR improved radical scavenging activities, increase antioxidant enzymes capacity, increase ascorbic acid, phenols and proline contents, because of it plant growth were improved significantly [119]
Heavy metal Maize 2013 EBR have a stimulating effect on seed germination and seedling growth. It reduce heavy metal induce electrolyte leakage form maize cells [120]
Nickel Brassica juncea 2007 EBR significantly enhanced Brassica juncea growth, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, Nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activity and activate defense system [121]
Nickel Wheat 2010 EBR enhance wheat seedling growth and related parameters, photosynthesis, chlorophyll, antioxidant enzymes capacity and activate enzymes [122]
Lead Fenugreek 2014 EBR improve plant growth, biomass, photosynthesis pigment, photosynthesis and reduce Pb toxic effect [123]
Cadmium Tomato 2011 EBR play a protective role against Cadmium stress by increasing plant defense system and activating enzymes [46]