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Table 5 Starch-degrading enzymes from archaea

From: Biotechnological applications of archaeal enzymes from extreme environments

Enzyme Organism Type of enzyme Enzyme properties References
Optimal temperature (°C) Optimal pH Thermostability
α-Amylase Pyrococcus sp. ST04 Recombinant 90–95 5.0 254 min, 75 °C [42]
Pyrococcus woesei DSM 3773 Recombinant 95 5.6 3.5 h, 110 °C [41]
Thermococcus sp. Native 95 5.0 5 h, 90 °C [43]
Thermococcus hydrothermalis Recombinant 75–85 5.0–5.5 Not reported [45]
Methanococcus jannaschii Recombinant 120 5.0–8.0 50 h, 100 °C [47]
Halorubrum xinjiangense Native 70 8.5 2 h, 70 °C [52]
Haloferax mediterranei Native 50–60 7.0–8.0 10 h, 50 °C [53]
β-Amylase Pyrococcus furiosus Native 110 Not reported Not reported [55]
Glucoamylase Picrophilus torridus Recombinant 50 5.0 8 h, 55 °C [57]
Sulfolobus
solfataricus P2
Recombinant 90 5.5–6.0 Not reported [58]
Thermoplasma acidophilum
DSM 1728
Recombinant 75 5.0 15 min, 80 °C [59]
α-Glucosidase Pyrococcus furiosus Native 105–115 5.0–6.0 48 h, 98 °C [62]
Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 Recombinant 95 4.0 40.1 min, 100 °C [65]
Picrophilus torridus Recombinant 87 5.0 120 min, 80 °C [66]
Ferroplasma acidiphilum strain Y Recombinant 50 2.4–3.5 190 min, 50 °C [67]
Pullulanase type II Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 Recombinant 100 5.5–6.0 ~ 2 h, 100 °C [70]
Thermococcus siculi Recombinant 95 6.0 1 h, 100 °C [72]
Desulfurococcus mucosus Recombinant 85 5.0 50 min, 85 °C [73]
Staphylothermus marinus Recombinant 105 5.0 50 min, 100 °C [75]
Halorubrum sp. Strain Ha25 Native 50 7.5 212 min, 50 °C [76]
Pullulan hydrolase type III Thermococcus kodakarensis Recombinant 95–100 3.5–4.2 45 min, 100 °C [77]
  Thermococcus aggregans DSM 10597 Recombinant 95 6.5 2.5 h, 100 °C [78]
Isoamylase Sulfolobus solfataricus ATCC 35092 Recombinant 75 5.5 Not reported [80]
Amylomaltase Pyrobaculum aerophilum IM2 Recombinant 95 6.7 107 min, 95 °C [87]
CGTase Pyrococcus furiosus DSM3638 Recombinant 95 5.0 46 min, 95 °C [88]
Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 Recombinant 80 5.5–6.0 20 min, 100 °C [85]
Haloferax mediterranei Recombinant 55 7.5 ~ 1 h, 50 °C (3 M NaCl) [91]
Branching-enzyme Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 Recombinant 70 7.0 > 120 min, 90 °C [92]
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