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Table 2 Characteristics of archaeal extremozymes and their applications.

From: Biotechnological applications of archaeal enzymes from extreme environments

Type Characteristics of the enzymes Enzymes Applications
Acidophiles Prevalence of acidic amino acids on the surface Amylases, glucoamylases, xylanases, cellulases, proteases Biofuel production, food, mining, starch processing, desulfurization of coal
Alkaliphiles Prevalence of basic amino acids on the surface, high pI values Proteases, cellulases amylases Detergents, food and feed, beer and paper industry
Halophiles Relatively large number of acidic amino acids on the surface, smaller hydrophobic amino acids and salt-dependent folding Proteases, dehydrogenases Peptide synthesis, biocatalysis in organic media
Psychrophiles Smaller number of disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges. Decrease in hydrophobic property, lower thermal stability, increased flexibility and specific activity Proteases, amylases, cellulases, lipases Laundry, detergents, textiles
Thermophiles Increase in ionic interactions, increased hydrophobicity, packing, number of disulfide bonds, salt-bridging, surface charges, shortening of surface loop, stabilization of loops by interaction with metal ions, reduction in unstable amino acids at high temperatures Proteases, lipases, glucoamylases, glucosidases, amylases, pullulanases, cellulases, xylanases, esterases, DNA polymerases, dehydrogenases Detergents, food and feed, starch, cellulose, textiles, paper bleaching, molecular biology, oxidation reactions, fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals
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