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Fig. 3 | Biological Research

Fig. 3

From: Neuron-derived CCL2 contributes to microglia activation and neurological decline in hepatic encephalopathy

Fig. 3

TNF-α stimulation induced CCL2 expression and release in cultured neurons. The primary neurons isolated from neonatal rats were stimulated with different concentrations of TNF-α (0.1, 1 or 10 ng/ml) for 15 min or 10 ng/ml of TNF-α for 5, 10 or 20 min. Then the cells were washed with PBS and cultured in fresh medium. After 3 h, the CCL2 mRNA expression (a, c) and content in medium (b, d) were determined using qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05, vs Ctrl

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