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Table 1 Characteristics of the controls and HFpEF patients

From: Association of serum total bilirubin levels with diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

  Control group (n = 200) HFpEF groups
   1-mild (n = 52) 2-moderate (n = 116) 3-severe (reversible restrictive) (n = 138) 4-severe (fixed restrictive) (n = 21) P*-value
Male (n, %) 116 (58%) 31 (5.6%)a 44 (37.9%)a 49 (35.5%)a 6 (28.6%)a,b,c,d 0.003
Age (years) 43.6 (9.7) 69.7 (7.3)a 65.9 (10.2)a 67.1 (11.4)a 66.3 (13.1)a 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.7 (2.5) 24.3 (3.6)a 23.9 (4.7) 24.5 (2.1)a 23.8 (3.7) 0.048
Smoker (n, %) 85 (42.5%) 25 (48.1%) 39 (33.6%) 38 (27.5%)a 5 (23.8%)a,b,c 0.028
Medications       
ASA (n, %) 0 48 (92.3%)a 110 (94.8%)a 134 (97.1%)a 20 (95.2%)a <0.001
Diuretic (n, %) 0 21 (40.4)a 64 (55.2%)a,b 70 (50.7%)a,b 18 (85.7%)a,bc,d <0.001
Beta blocker (n, %) 0 21 (40.4%)a 44 (37.9%)a 50 (36.2%)a 8 (38.1%)a <0.001
ACEI/ARB (n, %) 0 47 (90.4%)a 112 (96.6%)a 133 (96.4%)a 21 (100%)a <0.001
Statin (n, %) 0 50 (96.2%)a 111 (95.7%)a 132 (95.7%)a 19 (90.5%)a <0.001
CCB (n, %) 0 27 (51.9%)a 52 (44.8%)a 66 (47.8%)a 9 (42.9%)a <0.001
HR (b/min) 77.4 (6.1) 75.8 (6.7) 78.2 (7.1) 71.1 (5.8)a 80.2 (7.2)d 0.036
SBP (mmHg) 120.1 (8.6) 124.6 (5.8) 138.1 (10.1)a,b 140.2 (9.3)a,b 150.6 (7.2)a,b,c 0.005
DBP (mmHg) 78.2 (7.0) 80.3 (8.8) 81.2 (6.5) 90.2 (10.3)a,b,c 91.4 (9.5)a,b,c 0.017
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 191.7 (19.1) 209.3 (20.2)a 234.7 (19.0)a 225.6 (18.8)a 242.5 (22.7)a 0.007
LDL (mg/dl) 108.3 (17.4) 124.1 (18.2)a 120.6 (19.1)a 125.7 (18.8)a 131.9 (21.2)a 0.004
HDL (mg/dl) 51.3 (7.5) 43.4 (8.2) 44.0 (8.1) 47.9 (6.3) 45.2 (7.7) 0.069
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 128.8 (19.4) 150.9 (17.3)a 152.6 (18.4)a 147.6 (20.5)a 144.1 (19.6)a 0.025
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 95.2 (7.3) 96.3 (8.1) 100.7 (6.8) 94.9 (7.4) 102.5 (8.2) 0.326
Creatinine (umol/L) 83.6 (10.7) 92.4 (11.1) 95.3 (9.6) 121.3 (12.5)a,b,c 127.6 (13.5)a,b,c 0.013
Urea level (umol/L) 261.4 (23.9) 252.4 (22.1) 274.5 (19.3) 282.6 (20.7) 288.2 (21.6) 0.204
Alanine aminotransferase (U/L) 25.4 (6.4) 32.1 (7.9) 29.6 (8.1) 30.1 (6.4) 32.1 (7.5) 0.338
TB (umol/L) 15.3 (4.1) 14.1 (3.2) 12.5 (3.6)a 11.8 (2.9)a 10.4 (4.0)a,b 0.001
  1. Values are mean ± SD or numbers. BMI, body mass index; HR, heart rate; ASA: acetylsalicylic acid; ACEI: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker; CCB: calcium channel blocker; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, high density lipoprotein; TB, total bilirubin; Numerical variables were compared by t-test; Categorical variables (male/female, smoker, medications) were compared by chi-square test. P*-value, control group vs. HFpEF group; aP < 0.05 compared with control, after Bonferroni correction; bP < 0.05 compared with stage 1-mild, after Bonferroni correction; cP <0.05 compared with stage 2-modeate, after Bonferroni correction; dP < 0.05 compared with stage 3-severe (reversible restrictive), after Bonferroni correction.