Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison of studies using the TAC model in C57/Bl6 mice with a focus on exercise intervention or muscle function in heart failure

From: Structural and functional alterations in heart and skeletal muscle following severe TAC in mice: impact of moderate exercise training

PMID/author/year Age at surgery, sex, animal supplier Exercise start, exercise regime TAC type n LV hypertrophy normalized to sham (%) Cardiac characteristics at sacrifice Muscle characteristics at sacrifice
28622359/Wang et al./2017 8 weeks, male, Jackson Lab Start: 1 week post-surgery
Regime: swimming with increasing training duration (20–60 min/day), 60% VO2max, 9 weeks
Sham sed 15 100 EF = 75%a, FS = 37%a No muscle characteristics specified
Sham ex 15 100a EF = 80%a, FS = 40%a No muscle characteristics specified
TAC 27G sed 15 153 EF = 40%a. FS = 18%a. ~ 3-fold increased CSA, 12% interstitial fibrotic remodeling (Masson Trichrome staining) No muscle characteristics specified
TAC 27G ex 15 132 EF = 57%. FS = 25%. ~ 2-fold increased CSA. 4% interstitial fibrotic remodeling (Masson Trichrome staining) No muscle characteristics specified
31930683/Tian et al./2019 6 weeks, male, Shanghai Lab Animal Center Start: n.d
Regime: Treadmill running with increasing intensity (30–60 min/day, 11–13 m/min), 8 weeks
Sham sed   100a EF = 64%a, FS = 38%a No muscle characteristics specified
Sham ex   100a EF = 70%a, FS = 40%a No muscle characteristics specified
TAC 27G sed   159a EF = 50%a. FS = 23%a. ~ 1.4-fold increased CSAa, 2.8-fold increased ANPa, 3.5-fold increased BNPa No muscle characteristics specified
TAC 27G ex   140a EF = 58%. FS = 30%. ~ 1.2-fold increased CSAa, twofold increased ANPa, 2.5-fold increased BNPa No muscle characteristics specified
21291889/Van Deel et al./2011 20 weeks, sex not specified, supplier not specified Start: immediately post-surgery
Regime: 8 weeks voluntary wheel running
Sham sed 20 100 FS = 38%a  
Sham ex 21 105a FS = 40%a Total run distance 432 ± 37 km
TAC 25G sed 16 120a FS = 32%a  
TAC 25G ex 13 140 FS = 31%a Total run distance 409 ± 42 km
TAC 27G sed 35 186 FS = 17%a  
TAC 27G ex 29 200a FS = 14%a Total run distance 276 ± 38 km
23449942/Richards et al./2013 8 weeks, male, Jackson Lab ETT at 3, 7, 11, 15 weeks post-surgery Sham 10 100 EF = 72 ± 4% Maximum running distance at 3, 7, 11, 15 weeks: 630 ma, 410 ma, 390 ma, 400 ma
LAD 34 147 EF = 36 ± 5%. Interstitial fibrotic remodeling (Masson Trichrome staining) Maximum running distance at 3, 7, 11, 15 weeks: 490 ma, 380 ma, 400 ma, 390 ma
TAC 27G 16 197 EF = 28 ± 6%. Interstitial fibrotic remodeling (Masson Trichrome staining) Maximum running distance at 3, 7, 11, 15 weeks: 400 ma, 300 ma, 300 ma, 280 ma
29986381/Van Deel et al./2018 12–20 weeks, sex not specified, supplier not specified Start: immediately post-surgery
Regime: 8 weeks voluntary wheel running
Sham sed 12 100 FS = 38%a  
Sham ex 12 100 FS = 40%a Total run distance: 435 ± 6 km
LAD sed 21 110a FS = 10%a, collagen content ~ 1.8%a increased  
LAD ex 19 105a FS = 15%a Total run distance: 245 ± 5 km
TAC sed, needle diameter not specified (presumably 27G) 19 200a FS = 15%a, collagen content ~ 2% increased  
TAC ex, needle diameter not specified (presumably 27G) 16 210a FS = 13%a, collagen content ~ 3.7%a increased Total run distance: 237 ± 6 km
28159807/Sung et al./2017 8 weeks, male, Charles River Lab ETT: treadmill running at 15 m/min, 3 and 5 weeks post TAC Sham 15 100 EF = 50.08 ± 5.01%, FS = 25.73 ± 3.25%
5 weeks post TAC
Total run distance: 490 ma, whole body glucose consumption: 4.900 mL/kg/ha and fatty acid oxidation: 600 mL/kg/ha, O2 consumption in EDL (a) basal: 2.1 nmol O2/min/mg dry wta, (b) ADP-stimulated: 6.1 nmol O2/min/mg dry wta
O2 consumption in Soleus (a) basal: 3 nmol O2/min/mg dry wta, (b) ADP-stimulated: 2 nmol O2/min/mg dry wta
All data 5 weeks post TAC
TAC 27G 10 172 EF = 26.00 ± 3.47%, FS = 12.21 ± 1.78%
5 weeks post TAC
Total run distance: 260 ma, reduced activity in insulin pathway in skeletal muscle, whole body glucose consumption: 1.900 mL/kg/ha and fatty acid oxidation: 800 mL/kg/ha, O2 consumption in EDL (a) basal: 1.3 nmol O2/min/mg dry wta, (b) ADP-stimulated: 3 nmol O2/min/mg dry wta
O2 consumption in Soleus (a) basal: 10 nmol O2/min/mg dry wta, (b) ADP-stimulated: 4.9 nmol O2/min/mg dry wta
All data 5 weeks post TAC
Own data 8 weeks, male, Janvier Lab Start: 2 weeks post-surgery
Regime: 8 weeks treadmill training at 60% VO2max
Sham 13 100 EF = 61 ± 5%, FS = 32 ± 3% EDL maximum force 25.8 ± 5.7 N/cm2
TACSED 27G 11 147 EF = 46 ± 6%, FS = 23 ± 4%, 1.2-fold increased CSA EDL maximum force 28.8 ± 4.7 N/cm2
EDL: 1.2-fold decreased CSA, 1.25-fold decrease in slow fibers
Soleus: CSA as in sham, 1.1-fold increase in slow fibers
TACEX 27G 12 140 EF = 47 ± 7%, FS = 23 ± 4%, 1.2-fold increased CSA EDL maximum force 28.1 ± 6.6 N/cm2
EDL: 1.1-fold decreased EDL CSA, 1.2-fold decrease in slow fibers
Soleus: 1.2-fold decreased Soleus CSA, slow fibers as in sham
  1. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy normalized to sham operated mice—simplified overview to allow for comparisons as some publications reported LV mass, LV mass/bodyweight, heart mass/tibial length or total heart weight (own data)
  2. n.d not declared, EF ejection fraction, FS fractional shortening, CSA cross-sectional area, ETT exercise tolerance test, ANP Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, BNP Brain Natriuretic Peptide
  3. aValue estimated from figure as not indicated otherwise