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Table 1 Functional and morphological characteristics of sham, TACSED and TACEX

From: Structural and functional alterations in heart and skeletal muscle following severe TAC in mice: impact of moderate exercise training

  Sham TACSED TACEX
Baseline TAC phenotype
 Body weight (g) 28.2 ± 0.1 28.2 ± 0.2 (p = 0.13) 29.2 ± 0.1 (a: p = 0.95; b: p = 0.18)
 Tibia length (mm) 17.2 ± 0.05 17.5 ± 0.03 (p = 0.89) 17.2 ± 0.05 (a: p = 0.10; b: p = 0.12)
 Heart weight (mg) 145.6 ± 1.0 201.4 ± 2.8 (p < 0.001) 213.8 ± 2.8 (a: p < 0.001; b: p = 0.46)
 Heart weight/tibia length (mg/mm) 8.5 ± 0.1 11.6 ± 0.1 (p < 0.001) 12.4 ± 0.2 (a: p < 0.001; b: p = 0.26)
 EDL mass/TL (mg/mm) 0.77 ± 0.12 0.83 ± 0.05 (p = 0.14) 0.81 ± 0.05 (a: p = 0.35; b: p = 0.61)
Functional cardiac parameters
 LCCA velocity 2 weeks post TAC (mm/s) 833.5 ± 15.3 333.0 ± 49.5 (a: p < 0.001; b: p = 0.90)
 RCCA velocity 2 weeks post TAC (mm/s) 1148.7 ± 154.4 1524.1 ± 138.0 (a: p = 0.098; b: p = 0.42)
 LVEF (%) 61 ± 5 46 ± 6 (p < 0.001) 47 ± 7 (a: p < 0.001; b: p = 0.76)
 FS (%) 32 ± 3 22 ± 4 (p < 0.001) 23 ± 4 (a: p < 0.001; b: p = 0.76)
 Diastolic LV volume (µL) 68.7 ± 5.58 103.9 ± 4.9 (p = 0.002) 107.1 ± 9.6 (a: p = 0.03; b: p = 0.77)
 Systolic LV volume (µL) 34.6 ± 4.0 63.4 ± 5.5 (p < 0.001) 69.4 ± 10.9 (a: p = 0.007; b: p = 0.63)
 Diastolic LV wall thickness (mm) 4.3 ± 0.1 4.7 ± 0.9 (p = 0.27) 4.4 ± 0.4 (a: p = 0.097; b: p = 0.69)
 Systolic LV wall thickness (mm) 1.0 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.1 (p = 0.64) 1.1 ± 0.1 (a: p = 0.50; b: p = 0.82)
Histological evaluation of cardiac remodeling
 Relative heart area 1 0.98 ± 0.05 (p = 0.72) 1.09 ± 0.03 (a: p = 0.022; b: p = 0.053)
 Relative circumference 1 0.98 ± 0.02 (p = 0.45) 1.07 ± 0.02 (a: p = 0.01; b: p = 0.003)
 Relative LV thickness 1 1.09 ± 0.08 (p = 0.40) 1.09 ± 0.06 (a: p = 0.23; b:p = 0.97)
 Relative RV thickness 1 0.77 ± 0.08 (p = 0.044) 0.70 ± 0.06 (a:p = 0.004; b: p = 0.56)
 Cardiomyocyte CSA (µm2) 50.3 ± 0.8 61.6 ± 1.2 (p < 0.001) 59.6 ± 1.0 (a: p < 0.001; b: p = 0.20)
 Perivascular fibrosis (%) 1.8 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 1.1 (p = 0.75) 2.6 ± 0.2 (a:p = 0.27; b:p = 0.48)
 Interstitial fibrosis (%) 0.2 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 (p = 0.51) 0.3 ± 0.1 (a: p = 0.01; b: p = 0.86)
 Coronary artery diameter (µm) 27.3 ± 2.0 36.6 ± 2.8 (p = 0.008) 30.8 ± 3.0 (a: p = 0.32; b: p = 0.16)
Muscle function and remodeling
 EDL max. force (N/cm2) 25.8 ± 5.7 28.8 ± 4.7 (p = 0.20) 28.1 ± 6.6 (a: p = 0.30; b: p = 0.9)
 EDL fiber diameter (µm) 40.7 ± 1.7 35.3 ± 1.6 (p = 0.04) 37.1 ± 1.4 (a: p = 0.16, b: p = 0.79)
 EDL slow fiber proportion (%) 2.25 ± 0.41 1.81 ± 0.48 (p = 0.78) 2.63 ± 1.12 (a: p = 0.62; b: p = 0.53)
 EDL fast fiber proportion (%) 92.7 ± 1.1 86.6 ± 07.2 (p = 0.32) 93.1 ± 4.6 (a: p = 0.84; b: p = 021)
 Soleus fiber diameter (µm) 44.3 ± 1.9 45.8 ± 1.5 (p = 0.74) 37.8 ± 1.5 (a: p = 0.01; b: p = 0.002)
 Soleus slow fiber proportion (%) 30.3 ± 3.0 33.6 ± 8.5 (p = 0.73) 29.7 ± 2.6 (a: p = 0.87; b: p = 0.78)
  1. Mean ± SEM (Two-Way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, a: p value TACEX vs. sham, b: p value TACSED vs. TACEX, a and b are listed in the fourth column “TACEX”)
  2. EDL extensor digitorum longus, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, FS fractional shortening, RV right ventricle, CSA cross-sectional area