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Fig. 4 | Biological Research

Fig. 4

From: Palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity promotes a novel interplay between Akt-mTOR, IRS-1, and FFAR1 signaling in pancreatic β-cells

Fig. 4

PA promotes FFAR1 mRNA expression in INS-1 cells. Cells were grown in a monolayer culture and treated with different concentrations of PA for 24 h; then, RNA was extracted and analyzed by qPCR. Duplicate cell repeats were performed for each group. No significant changes were seen in mRNA levels for both INSR1β and GLUT2 following treatment with 0.4 or 0.6 mM PA compared with the untreated controls. However, there was a clear increase in FFAR1 levels following exposure to 0.4 and 0.6 mM PA. GAPDH was used as a reference gene for normalization. Values represent mean ± SEM and the data are representative of at least three independent experiments. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01

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