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Fig. 3 | Biological Research

Fig. 3

From: Palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity promotes a novel interplay between Akt-mTOR, IRS-1, and FFAR1 signaling in pancreatic β-cells

Fig. 3

Effect of PA on protein expression in INS-1 cells. Cells were grown in a monolayer culture and treated for 24 h with different concentrations of PA. Duplicate cell repeats were performed for each group. Whole-cell lysates were separated by 8–12% SDS-PAGE and then analyzed by Western blotting. a The left panel illustrates both mTOR and insulin signaling pathway targets and shows a reduction in expression levels with treatment using 0.4 and 0.6 mM PA compared with the control. The right panel shows there were no significant changes in target expression with PA treatment. Actin was used as a loading control. b Protein quantification of targets affected by PA in (a) and their statistical significance are shown. Values represent mean ± SEM and the data are representative of at least three independent experiments. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01

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