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Fig. 2 | Biological Research

Fig. 2

From: Palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity promotes a novel interplay between Akt-mTOR, IRS-1, and FFAR1 signaling in pancreatic β-cells

Fig. 2

Effect of high PA concentrations on GSIS in INS-1 cells. a GSIS was performed using the perifusion method in which triplicate repeats of 300 clusters of INS-1 cells were pretreated with PA for 24 h and then exposed to different glucose concentrations at 5- and 15-min time points. A gradual decrease in GSIS was observed between the control and the PA-treated groups, at both low and high glucose concentrations. b However, the difference in both the first (5 min) and second (15 min) phase of insulin secretion was more prominent when cells were exposed to increased lipotoxic conditions (0.4 and 0.6 mM PA) indicated by their stimulation indexes. c A similar pattern in GSIS was observed when monolayer INS-1 cells were exposed for a longer period to different glucose concentrations using the static incubation method. Data represent mean ± SEM of normalized insulin/DNA of at least three independent experiments. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01

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