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Table 6 Effect of the irrigation treatments (I1 = 100%, I2 = 85% and I3 = 70% ETc), kaolin application (K1 = 0%, K2 = 3% and K3 = 6%), apple cultivars (Golab and Shafi Abadi) and time of the year (June, August, October) on total antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (AC) and soluble proteins (SP) of leaves and fruits

From: Effects of deficit irrigation and kaolin application on vegetative growth and fruit traits of two early ripening apple cultivars

Treatments Leaf Fruit
AA (%) TPC (mg g−1 F.W) AA (%) TPC (mg g−1 F.W) AC (mg/100 ml) SP (mg g−1 F.W)
Irrigation (I) ns * ns ** ** ns
 I1 28.23a 1.560b 36.00a 2.36c 2.24b 0.29a
 I2 29.43a 1.616ab 38.36a 3.58b 2.53b 0.28a
 I3 37.47a 1.702a 37.94a 5.95a 7.54a 0.26a
Kaolin (K) ns ** ns ** ns ns
 K1 30.60a 1.541b 38.04a 3.35c 4.24a 0.28a
 K2 32.76a 1.687a 38.08a 4.59a 3.96a 0.28a
 K3 31.78a 1.650a 39.18a 3.95b 4.13a 0.27a
Cultivar (cv) ns ns ns ns ns ns
Golab 32.03a 1.608a 37.36a 4.14a 4.13a 0.27a
Shafi Abadi 31.39a 1.645a 39.50a 3.79a 4.09a 0.28a
Time ** **
 T1 57.61a 1.353c
 T2 16.50c 1.842a
 T3 21.03b 1.684b
Interactions       
 I × K ns ns ns * ns ns
 I × CV ** ns ns ns * ns
 T × I ns ** ns
 K × CV ns ns ns ns * ns
 T × K ns ns ns
 T × CV ** ns ns
 I × K × CV ** ns ns ns ** ns
 T × I × K ns ns ns
 T × I × CV * ns ns
 T × I × K × CV ns ns ns
  1. Means within each column for each treatment followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05 level
  2. * and ** showing significant effects at 5% and 1% level by Duncan test, ns: not significant