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Table 2 Successful stories of GM plants against drought stress

From: Coping with drought: stress and adaptive mechanisms, and management through cultural and molecular alternatives in cotton as vital constituents for plant stress resilience and fitness

Environmental condition Stress type Beneficial features for drought tolerance Yield References
Greenhouse and field Drought Improved water use efficiency (WUE), photosynthesis, root system and osmotic adjustment and scavenging ROS NA [142]
Laboratory and green house Drought and heat Enhanced protection of photosynthesis, seedlings and leaf viability NA [137]
Laboratory, greenhouse and field Drought and salt Increased proton pump activity of the vacuolar pyrophosphatase, auxin polar transport stimulation lead to root development Increased 20% [143]
Laboratory and greenhouse   High chlorophyll content, improved photosynthesis, higher relative water content and less cell membrane damage Increased 40% [140]
Laboratory, greenhouse and field Drought Increased production of ABA and proline content NA [144]
Green house   Enhanced proline content and root development, while transpiration rate decreased 131% more bolls [145]
Green house and field Drought and salt Enhanced sequestration of ions and sugars into vacuole, reduced water potential, and enhanced root biomass 20% increased [146]
Greenhouse Drought Higher relative water content and proline level while reduced H2O2, lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage 57.6%, more bolls [147]
Greenhouse Drought Improved photosynthesis, roots and shoots, higher relative water content and less cell membrane damage 51% higher [88]
Greenhouse Drought Increased photosynthesis, higher relative water content, better osmotic adjustment, less ion leakage and lipid membrane peroxidation 3–12% more [148]
Greenhouse Drought Higher photosynthesis, delayed leaf senescence NA [149]
Greenhouse Drought and salt Longer roots, higher chlorophyll and proline content, higher germination rate and soluble sugar, lower lipid peroxidation NA [150]
Greenhouse Drought Higher soluble sugar and proline content, enhanced superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, improved cell membrane integrity, increased net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and root length NA [150]
Laboratory green house and field Drought and salt Increased proline and soluble sugar content, well developed roots, reduced leaf stomatal density, increase ROS scavenging enzymes 43% higher [144]
Green house and field Drought Proline content and sugar increased, higher peroxidase activity, reduced loss of net photosynthetic rate, reduced lipid peroxidation, greater plant height, larger bolls Yield increased [141]