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Table 4 The phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of honey by DPPH and FRAP assays

From: Activities of different types of Thai honey on pathogenic bacteria causing skin diseases, tyrosinase enzyme and generating free radicals

Source Type of pollen Phenolic content (mg GAE/kg of honey) Flavonoid content (mg quercetin /kg of honey) DPPH (mg GAE/kg of honey) FRAP (mg FeSO 4 /kg of honey)
1 Longan 301.93 ± 47.90 40.46 ± 11.49 14.04 ± 0.18 627.57 ± 91.61
Lychee 253.69 ± 50.34 59.77 ± 20.93 7.35 ± 0.10 440.16 ± 57.85
Polyflora 320.37 ± 30.78 66.56 ± 15.64 12.28 ± 0.28 295.60 ± 50.86
2 Longan 467.66 ± 16.19 81.91 ± 3.09 33.74 ± 2.90 899.37 ± 119.27
Sunflower 380.94 ± 14.37 67.23 ± 4.70 17.93 ± 0.44 860.40 ± 124.53
Polyflora 425.19 ± 58.77 51.62 ± 1.41 15.06 ± 0.29 568.12 ± 95.83
3 Longan 312.53 ± 32.54 53.88 ± 2.62 11.36 ± 0.25 696.83 ± 94.80
Lychee 280.44 ± 64.79 34.48 ± 1.17 5.93 ± 0.02 319.56 ± 28.41
Polyflora 350.05 ± 53.06 55.42 ± 2.23 17.03 ± 2.54 645.61 ± 87.77
Forest flower 315.72 ± 12.37 35.40 ± 1.46 7.10 ± 0.12 373.76 ± 52.45
4 Coffee 734.76 ± 155.50 178.31 ± 40.04 86.20 ± 0.64 1781.78 ± 218.70
5 Polyflora 674.81 ± 52.77 79.75 ± 1.70 48.18 ± 9.20 1016.11 ± 87.91
6 Lychee 311.87 ± 12.11 55.99 ± 2.17 8.71 ± 1.86 269.83 ± 9.20
Sunflower 274.89 ± 69.37 47.36 ± 2.84 13.39 ± 2.86 490.61 ± 44.47
Polyflora 234.66 ± 22.47 29.86 ± 6.69 6.15 ± 0.65 331.87 ± 17.50
Sesame 314.92 ± 16.82 54.97 ± 0.19 9.12 ± 1.05 279.76 ± 19.65
Mānuka honey 831.88 ± 120.26 162.87 ± 11.51 83.80 ± 11.29 954.10 ± 123.77
  1. Note: The data are given as mean ± standard deviation (SD) of triplicate experiments. The statistical comparison between values from the different types of honey applied using the post hoc Duncan test. The values were found to be significantly different (p < 0.05).